The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, although the northern (primarily Germany, France and Great Britain) and southern universities (primarily Italy) did have many elements in common.
Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations.
Behind them, a bedel, a Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine graduate., "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
Lay students arrived in the city from many lands entering into a contract to gain this knowledge, organising themselves into 'Nationes', divided between that of the Cismontanes and that of the Ultramontanes. All over Europe rulers and city governments began to create universities to satisfy a European thirst for knowledge, and the belief that society would benefit from the scholarly expertise generated from these institutions.
Princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends.
The structure of northern universities tended to be modeled after the system of faculty governance developed at the University of Paris.
Southern universities tended to be patterned after the student-controlled model begun at the University of Bologna.
Later they were also founded by Kings (University of Naples Federico II, Charles University in Prague, Jagiellonian University in Kraków) or municipal administrations (University of Cologne, University of Erfurt).
Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities.
The first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna (1088), the University of Paris (c.1150, later associated with the Sorbonne), and the University of Oxford (1167).
There was also a difference in the types of degrees awarded at these universities.
English, French and German universities usually awarded bachelor's degrees, with the exception of degrees in theology, for which the doctorate was more common. The distinction can be attributed to the intent of the degree holder after graduation – in the north the focus tended to be on acquiring teaching positions, while in the south students often went on to professional positions.